Studies on neural activities of any functional systems can influence the research and development of other systems. The Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial System (HNS) has contributed to neuroscience studies in at least the following aspects. That is, 1) the identification of excitation-secretion coupling; 2) the coexistence of peptides-containing large dense core vesicles with classical neurotransmitters; 3) neuronal-glial interactions and functions-associated morphological plasticity; and 4) domain-specific regulation of the secretory activity. In modern neuroscience studies, the studies on the HNS continuously play a model role by highlighting 1) its extrahypothalamic connections of the HNS, 2) scaffolding and guiding roles of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocyte plasticity, 3) cellular and molecular processes determining different firing patterns, 4) the position of the HNS in neuroendocrine-immune network, 5) the nose-hypothalamic route that serves as a key mediator of drug effects on brain activity, 6) translational potential of studies on the HNS, such as vasopressin involvement in brain injury in ischemic stroke and oxytocin in lactation failure and its associated health issues. This paper provides an overview of the model role and challenges of studying on the HNS, particularly for the beginners of the neuroendocrine researchers, and leaves the following issues to be clarified.

1) What are the detailed molecular processes for the exocytosis of neuropeptides in the excitation-secretion couplings?

2) How do the peptides releasing from the coexisted large dense core vesicles interact with classical neurotransmitters?

3) How to understand the neuronal-glial interactions and functions-associated morphological plasticity?

4) What is the role of domain-specific regulation of neurosecretory activity in neural regulation of mental activity?

5) What is the direct evidence supporting the extrahypothalamic connections of the HNS?

6) Why do the authors claim scaffolding and guiding roles of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocyte plasticity?

7) Are there any unique cellular and molecular events determining different firing patterns of the magnocellular neurons?

8) How to verify the key position of the HNS in neuroendocrine-immune network?

9) Does application of neuropeptide through the nose-hypothalamic route waste more drugs than through the intravenous approach?

10) Does the translational potential of studies on the HNS really play important roles in improving the prognosis of ischemic stroke and lactation failure, and how to achieve this goal?


2017年07月28日

2017-7-28 Literature Analysis

Hou et al. Model roles of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system in neuroscience study. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 5:211. doi:10.4172/2167-0501.1000211, presented by Haitao Liu.

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