Section I.  Fundamentals of the nervous system (2017-11-22)


Keywords: Nervous system, somatic and autonomic nervous system, sensation, conduction, integration, motor, local neural circuit, neurovascular unit, neuron, soma, dendrites, axon, glia, synapse, neurotransmitter,


Basic knowledge:

Structures of neuron and their functions;

Feature of neural conduction;

Histology of synapse;

Neuronal activity and astrocytic plasticity.


Pre-Lecture Quiz 1A 

(Single choice)

1. Incorrect description of the nervous system is:

A. Mainly consists of neurons and glia; B. Is the dominant regulatory system; C. Transmits signals from motor neurons to sensory neurons; D. Can integrate different senses; E. Controls movement. (C)


2. Neural activity typically involves:

A. Sensation and neural conduction; B. Synaptic transmission; C. Release neurotransmitter; D. Local current and action potential; E. All above. (E)


3. The functions of neurons do not require:

A. Support, insulation, protection and nutrition of astrocytes;

B. Generation of action potentials by glial cells; (B)

C. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes form myelin of neuronal processes;

D. Microglia provide active immune defense in the CNS;

E. Synthesis and release of neurotransmitters. 


Post-Lecture Quiz 1B 

(Single choice)

1. The functions of neurons do not include:

A. Sensing changes in the environment; B. Conducting signals in action potentials; C. Integration of signals from one nerve terminals; D. Axonal transportation; E. Nutritional effects on the innervated tissues. (C)


2. Classical neurotransmission does not  involve:

A. Release norepinephrine, Ach, glutamate, GABA or dopamine; B. Conduct signals from axon terminals to dendrites; C. Action potential generation at the initial segment of axons; D. Receptor and postsynaptic potential; E. Nerve conduction. (B)


3. Features of nerve conduction include:

A. One-way conduction; B. Neurotransmitter release; C. Generation of EPSCs; D. Relatively insensitive to environmental changes; E. Signal diffusion across nerve bundles. (D)


Section II- Synaptic transmission and synaptic electrical activity (2017-11-24)


Keywords: Synapse; gap junction, acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, receptor, postsynaptic potential (PSP).


Basic knowledge

1) Process of synaptic transmission and its features

2) Definition of neurotransmitter and receptor

3) Ionic basis of the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

4) Mechanism underlying presynaptic inhibition


Pre-Lecture Quiz 2A

(Single choice)

1. Incorrect description about synapses is:

A. Composed of presynaptic terminal, cleft and postsynaptic density; B. Its transmission largely depends on the driving of action potentials; C. Can release neurotransmitter; D. Wrapped by astrocytic processes; E. Has no association with gap junctions between neurons. (A)


2. Synaptic transmission usually does not require:

A. Arrival of action potential in neural terminals; B. Calcium influx into the synaptic button; ; C. Mobilization of intracellular calcium stores at the presynaptic terminals; D. Releasing neurotransmitters; E. Activation of postsynaptic receptors.(C)


3. Which is not commonly involved in neuronal activity:

A. Receive information via cell body and dendrites; B. Neural conduction; C. Synaptic transmission; D. Release insulin to regulate the metabolism of blood sugar. E. Excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents following the activation of postsynaptic receptors. (D)

Post-Lecture Quiz 2B 

(Single choice)

1. Features of synaptic transmission do not include:

A: One-way conduction; B: Central delay; C: Insulation; D. Sensitive to environmental changes; E. Both chemical and electrical types. (C)


2. Noradrenergic functions in the PNS include:

A: Activation of M receptors; B. Activating  receptors; C: Contraction of striated muscle; D: Activating sweat glands; E: Activating adrenal gland. (B)


3. Which of the followings is not required for the generation of EPSCs in the CNS:

A. Action potential at neural terminal; B. Calcium influx into synaptic knob; C. Releasing glutamate; D. Activation of glutamate receptors; E. Opening of Cl- channels. (E)


Section III. Reflections and Examples (2017-11-27)

Keywords: Reflection, conditioned reflex, unconditioned reflex, divergent connection, Convergent connection, local circuit neuron, changes in excitation rhythm, facilitation and depression, after discharge and feedback.


Basic knowledge

1) Reflex arc;

2) Process of conditioned reflex;

3) Connections in multiple synaptic reflex;

4) Local neuronal circuit;

5) Features of excitation and propagation in the CNS


Pre-Lecture Quiz 3A

(Single choice)

1. Incorrect description about reflex is:

A. Cortex is not directly involved in unconditioned reflex; B. Include conditioned but not unconditioned reflex; C. Based on neural circuit; D. The center of conditioned reflex is at the cerebral cortex; E. Both chemical and electrical synapses are involved in the reflex. (B)


2. Multiple synaptic reflex does not directly involve:

A. Single line connection; B. Divergent connection; C. Convergent connection; D. Glial-neuronal interactions; E. Local neuronal circuit. (D)


3. Features of excitation and propagation in the CNS do not include:

A. Two-way conduction without central delay; B. Summation and occlusion; C. Changes in excitation rhythm and fatigability; D. After discharge and feedback; E. Localization and generalization. (A)

Post-Lecture Quiz 3B 

(Single choice)

1. Correct description about reflex is:

A. Conditioned reflex is established at birth; B. Unconditioned reflex is learned; C. Stretch reflex is an conditioned reflex; D. Spinal reflex also receives supraspinal regulation; E. The center of conditioned reflex is not at the cortex. (D)


2. Conditioned reflex is exemplified by:

A. Stretch reflexes; B. Pupillary light reflex; C. Baroreflex; D. Milk letdown reflex; E. Smiling when being praised verbally. (E)


3. Features of excitation and propagation in the CNS do not include:

A. Central delay; B. Summation and occlusion; C. No change in excitation rhythm; D. After discharge and feedback; E. Localization and generalization. (C)


Section IV. Sensory function of the nervous system (2017-11-29)


Key words: Sensory receptors, sense organ, transducer of the sensory receptor, sense coding, adaptation of sensory receptor, somatic vs. visceral sensations, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, electromagnetic receptors, chemoreceptors, adequate stimulus, transducer function, adaptation, spinothalamic pathway, dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway, sensory relay nucleus, associated nucleus, specific projection system, nonspecific projection system; referred pain


Basic knowledge

1. Concept of the sensation;

2. Physiological features of sensory receptors;

3. Rapid and slow adaptations;

4. Projecting pathways for mechanoreceptors, nociceptors, thermoreceptors, and visceral sensation;

5. Characteristics of sensory projection systems;

6. Mechanism underlying referred pain


Pre-Lecture Quiz 4A

(Single choice)

1) What do you call the conversion of various forms of energy into electrical activity by sensory receptors?

A. Depolarization; B. Hyperpolarization; C. Frequency modulation; D. Somesthetic propagation; E. Transduction. (E)


2) Which receptors do not adapt at all or adapt slowly?

A. Tactile; B. Nociceptors; C. Phasic; D. Smell; E. Taste. (B)


3) Incorrect description about sensory projection is:

A. Mechanoreceptors sense tactile, touch, pressure, tickle and position senses; B. Include spinothalamic pathway but not dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway; C. Involves specific and nonspecific projection systems; D. Each side of the cortex mainly receives sensory information from the opposite side of the body; E. Representative area of surface in the cortex are upside down. (B)

Post-lecture Quiz 4B

(Single choice)

1) During a constant stimulus, a decrease in the response is called: 
A. Coding; B. Transducer function; C. Adaptation; D. Fatigue; E. Adequate stimulus. (C)


2) Incorrect description of the projection system is:

A. Needs three order neurons in sensory pathway; B. Autonomic nerves but not dorsal column-medial lemniscal system and lateral spinothalamic tract carry visceral sensations to the specific relay nuclei in the thalamus; C. Nonspecific projection nucleus is in the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus. D. Somatic sensory area I is located in the postcentral gyrus; E. Senses carried by trigeminal nerve reach the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus. (B)


3) Features of referred pain does not include:

A. Often originates from pathologic sites of visceral organs; B. Perceived as injury coming from skin; C. A myocardial infarction can be sensed as pain in the chest/left limb; D. Sensitive to cut and burn; E. It can be explained by a convergence-projection theory. (D)

System-Section V. Sensory function of the nervous system (2017-12-1)


Keywords: Optics, cornea, lens, ciliary body, Iris, vitreous, retina, macula, choroid, sclera, pupil, aqueous humor, refractive index of a transparent substance, refraction, convex-convergence-spherical lens-focal point, focal length of the lens, diopter, reduced eye, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, accommodation of the eyes,  emmetropia, ametropia, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia, rods, cones, fovea, bipolar cell, ganglion cell, rod vision, cone vision, retinal, opsin, trichromacy theory, dark adaptation, light adaptation, red-green color blindness, blue weakness visual acuity, visual field.


Basic knowledge

The composition of refraction system

Accommodation of eyes

Rod and cone systems

Transducer function of retinal photoreceptors

Trichomatic theory

Dark adaptation and light adaptation


Pre-Lecture Quiz 5A
(Single choice)

1) Eyes do not have:

A. Cornea, iris, lens and retina; B. Ciliary muscle, suspensory ligament and pupil; C. Hair cells and taste buds; D. Parasympathetic component of the occulomotor nerve; E. Aqueous humor and vitreous humor.  (C)


2) To see near object, you do not need:

A. Refraction of light, photoreceptor and visual cortex; B. Convergence reflex; C. Near reflex of the pupil; D. Activation of hair cells in Organ of Corti; E. Adjustment of the lens.  (D)


3) Incorrect statement about rod and cone systems are:

A. Cone cells are located mainly in fovea; B. Rods allow us to see in dark light; C. Cone system enables us to see fine detail and colors; D. Rod cells overnumber cone cells; E. In dark light, cones work well. (E)


Post-Lecture Quiz 5B

(Single choice)

1) Incorrect description about the eyes is:

A. Most of the refractive/focusing power resides in the retina; B. Activity of ciliary muscle determines the curvature of lens; C. The fovea lies on the visual axis but not optic axis; D. Cones and rods are photosensitive; E. Pupil constrictor receive innervations of parasympathetic but not sympathetic nerves. (A)


2) Near reflex does not directly involve:

A. Convergence; B. Accommodation of the lens; C. Activation of precentral gyrus; D. Pupillary constriction; E. Activation of oculomotor nerve. (C)


3) Generation of vision does not need:

A. Light activation of rods or cones; B. Decomposition of light sensitive pigments inhibits rod and cone; C. Cones and rods can release glutamate to inhibit bipolar cells by activating metabolic receptor; D. Generation of action potential in ganglion cells; E. Direct activation of parietal lobe. (E)


System-Section VI. The Sense of Hearing, the Vestibular System, Olfaction and Taste (2017-12-4)


Keywords: Chemosensory system, audition, auditory Canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, ossicular system, stapedius muscles, cochlea, oval window, round window, vestibular apparatus, Organ of Corti, hair cells, deafness, traveling wave theory, microphonic potential, helicotrema, scala vestibule, scala media, scala tympani, semicircular canal, ampullae, utricle, saccule, odorants, tastants, olfactory epithelium, taste buds, mitral cells.


Basic knowledge

Impedance matching of the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain;

Cochlear traveling wave theory;

Generator potential of the organ of Corti;

Vestibular system and equilibrium;

Olfactory bulbs and smell;

Tongue and taste


Pre-Lecture Quiz 6A
(Single choice)

1) Incorrect description of the special sensation is:

A. Cone or rod cells sense visible light; B. Hair cells sense sound and head position; C. Olfactory sensory neurons detect odorants; D. Taste buds are concentrated at the tip and rear of the tongue and around its periphery; E. Vision and hearing belong to chemosensory system. (E)


2) Which one is not a correct statement of the hearing system:

A. Ear includes the outer, middle and inner portions; B. Outer ear can guide sound to the auditory canal; C. The middle ear can conduct vibrations into the inner ear; D. Cochlea has light-sensitive hair cells; E. Hair cells in the organ of Corti can convert sound into generator potential. (D)


3. Which of the following is not the feature of hearing:

A. Sound collection and transduction; 2. Impedance matching by the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain; C. Wave propagation along basilar membrane; D. Energy conversion by semicircular canal.; E. Analysis of sound signals by the temporal lobe. (D)

Post-Lecture Quiz 6B

(Single choice)

1) The Sense of Hearing does not involve:

A. The ossicles conduct sound from the tympanic membrane through the middle ear to the cochlea; B. Contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles can attenuate sound; C. Sound vibrations enter the scala vestibuli from the faceplate of the stapes at the oval window; D. High-frequency resonance of the basilar membrane occurs near the base; E. The organ of Corti generates action potential in response to vibration of the basilar membrane. (E)


2) Equilibrium sensation involves:

A. Convergence of taste and smell signals; B. Semicircuar canals; B. Pupillary constriction; D. Activation of oculomotor nerve; E. Activation of frontal lobes. (B)


3) Incorrect statement of specific sensations is:

A. Occipital lobe is the higher center of olfaction; B. Output from mitral cells changes the activity of piriform cortex; C. Gustation is evoked by activation of taste buds; D. Sodium levels in food are associated with the feeling of salty; E. Activation of olfactory epithelial cells by odorants. (A)


Chapter 9 Functions of the Nervous System-Review question III
Functions of the Nervous System-Guidance II



Functions of the Nervous System-Guidance I

Physiological Courses for International Students of Class 2016