System-Section VII. Neural Regulation of the Motor Functions (2017-12-6)

Keywords: Final common path, motor unit, spinal shock, stretch reflex, tendon reflex, muscle tonus, muscle spindle, decerebrate rigidity, flexor reflex, crossed extensor reflex, muscle spindle, intrafusal fiber, extrafusal fiber, tendon organ, motor column, flaccid paresis, spastic paresis, Babinski sign, pyramidal system, upper motor neuronlower motor neuron, basal ganglia, Parkinson disease, paralysis agitans, static tremor, vestibulocerebellum, spinocerebellum, intention tremor, cerebellar ataxia, corticocerebellum.


Basic knowledge

1. Motor neurons of spinal cord and motor unit;

2. Spinal reflex and its regulation by higher centers;

3. The characteristics of primary motor area of cerebral cortex;

4. Cortex regulation of body movement;

5. Functional neural circuit between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex;

6. Motor functions of the cerebellum.


Pre-Lecture Quiz 7A

(Single choice)

1) Incorrect description of spinal reflex is:

A. The final path is alpha-motor neuron; B. Including stretch reflex and tendon reflex; C. Tendon reflex is triggered by the activation of muscle spindle; D. Involving nerve conduction and synaptic transmission; E. Activation of tendon organ inhibits stretch reflex. (C) 


2) Supraspinal regulation of motor functions does not occur at:

A. Hindbrain Level; B. Basal ganglia; C. Motor Cortex Level; D. Cerebellum; E. Peripheral target of alpha motor neurons.(E)


3. Features of cortical motor area do not include:

A. Including primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area and posterior parietal cortex; B. Pyramidal cells are the major output cells; C. Cross-innervation of the body; D. Postcentral gyrus and limbic system are directly involved in output control; E. Control muscles activity via corticospinal tract and corticobulbar tract.(D) 

Post-Lecture Quiz 7B

(Single choice)

1) The correct description of spinal reflex is not:

A. Activation of tendon organ elicits muscle contraction; B. In stretch reflex, stretched muscle contracts; C. Contractions of flexor and crossed extensor can occur at same time; D. Alpha-motor neuron can be activated or inhibited; E. Involving  sensory receptor, nerve conduction, synaptic transmission. (A) 


2) Supraspinal regulation of motor functions does not involve:

A. Both facilitatory and inhibitory areas in the reticular structure of the brainstem; B. “Decerebrate rigidity” is due to a reduction of the activity of inhibitory brain areas; C. The center of tonic labyrinthine reflex is at the vestibular nucleus; D. Cortical motor area can initiate but not inhibit motor neuron activity; E. Cerebellum participates in designation and editing of motor programs.  (D)


3. Primary motor cortex does not have the following feature:

A. Cross innervation of the body in reverse order; B. Corticospinal tract mainly decussates at the medulla; C. Face above the eyes receives bilateral innervation of the corticobulbar tract; D. Motor column is the basic unit of the motor cortex; E. Located in the posterior parietal cortex. (E)

Section VIII Neural Regulation of Visceral Activity, Instinctive Behavior and Mood (2017-12-8)


Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, visceral nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, intrinsic nervous system, preganglionic fiber, postganglionic fiber,  enteric nervous system, visceral sensation, achetylcholine, norepinephrine, integration pattern, limbic system, limbic midbrain, instinctive behavior, motivation, feeding center, satiety center, sexual behavior, emotion, defense reaction, fight-flight reaction, defense area, reward system, punishment system, addiction, habituation, reinforcement, emotional physiological reaction.


Basic knowledge

1. Functional features of sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system;

2. Integration of the hypothalamus in neural regulation of visceral activity;

3. Functions of the limbic system in neural regulation of instinctive behavior and mood;

4. Rewarding system and dopaminergic activity.


Pre-Lecture Quiz 8A

(Single choice)

1. Functional features of autonomic nervous system do not include:

A. Functioning through reflex; B. Sympathetic nerves exit the CNS along the cranial nerves; C. Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons belongs to cholinergic cells; D. Acetylcholine is present in preganglionic fiber of all autonomic nerves; D. Main targets are myocardial cells, smooth muscles and glands.(B)


2. Which is not the function of the hypothalamus:

A. Regulating the activity of sensory nervous system; B. Playing a core role in integrative neural regulation of visceral activity; C. Controlling temperature, diurnal rhythm, and hydromineral balance; D. Controls feeding, drinking and sexual activity; E. Regulated by cerebral cortex.(A)


3. Incorrect description of neural regulation of mood involves:

A. Mainly produced by brain reward and punishment systems; B. Passive emotion belongs to defense reaction or fight-flight reaction; C. Irrelevant to the activity of autonomic system; D. Defense area is located in the ventromedial hypothalamus; E. Prefrontal cortex is closely related to the positive emotion.(C) 


Post-Lecture Quiz 8B

(Single choice)

1. Features of autonomic nervous systems do not include:

A. Basic reflex center in the spinal cord and brainstem; B. Vagus is a major sympathetic nerve exiting the brain from the brainstem; C. Acetylcholine is present in postganglionic fiber of some sympathetic terminal; D. Myocardial cells, smooth muscles and glands receive their dual innervation; E. Autonomic ganglia express N cholinergic receptor.(B)


2. Functions of hypothalamus in neural regulation of visceral activity and instinctive behavior include:

A. Playing a minor role in integrative neural regulation of visceral activity; B. Through somatic nervous system; C.  Related to its controlling feeding, drinking, and neuroendocrine functions; D. Independent of other components in the limbic system; E. Increase stretch reflex.(C)  


3. Neural regulation of mood does not involve:

A. Include both positive and negative aspects; B. Mainly results in activation of sympathetic system; C. Defense reaction or fight-flight reaction is mainly related to the hypothalamus; D. Defense causes strong endocrine response; E. Prefrontal cortex is closely related to the negative emotion.(E)


Section IX. Wakefulness and Sleep, Intellectual Functions of the Brain (2016-12-7)

Keywords: Spontaneous electric activity of the brain,  electroencephalogram (EEG), wakefulness, ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), behavior arousal, ascending inhibitory system, slow wave sleep, paradoxical sleep, fast wave sleep, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, non-associative learning, associative learning, reinforcement, extinction, laterality cerebral dominance, aphasia, alexia, agraphia


Basic knowledge

1. EEG waveform and its functional implication;

2. Neural mechanisms underlying sleep and awakening;

3. Features of memory and its formation;

4. Language functions of the dominant hemisphere.


Pre-Lecture Quiz 9A

(Single choice)

1. Which statement does not reflect EEG waveform:

A. It reflects the state of wakefulness and sleep; B. EEG is only evoked electrical activity of the brain; C. EEG includesα,β,θandδforms; D. The frequency has positive correlation with brain activity; E. Formation of α wave is due to the summation of synchronized postsynaptic potentials.(B)  


2. Sleep and awakening are not related to:

A. Awakening is due to the activation of ascending reticular activating system (ARAS); B. Many neurotransmitters are involved in ARAS, particularly glutamate; C. Beta wave reflects the state of deep sleep;  D. Stimulating ARAS can switch alpha wave into beta wave; E. It is related to the activity of Brainstem. (C) 


3. The higher functions of brain are not truly stated in:

A. Encoding, storing and extracting messages in the cerebrum; B. Memory is based on synaptic plasticity; C. Learning is associated with protein and transmitter synthesis, and changes in neural structures; D. There is laterality of cerebral dominance; E. Damage of Broca’s area but not Wernicke’s area of the dominant hemisphere causes sensory aphasia.(E) 

Post-lecture Quiz 9B

(Single choice)

1. EEG waveform and its implication are not related to:

A. Beta wave reflects the state of actively thinking ;  B. Stimulating ARAS can switch alpha wave into theta wave; C. θ and δ wave can be detected in awake baby; D. High frequency is not usually accompanied with high amplitude; E. Depend on postsynaptic potentials of many neurons in the thalamus and brain cortex. (B)


2. Incorrect statement of neural regulation of sleep and awakening is:

A. Ventrolateral preoptic area is related to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; B. Medulla reticular form is an ascending inhibitory system; C. Light and melatonin are involved in sleep; D. Norepinephrine in locus coeruleus is related to the turning off of REM sleep; E. Basic theory of sleep considers that sleep is a passively inhibitory process. (E)


3. Higher brain functions are not directly based on:

A. Associative learning,; B. Encoding, storing and extracting messages in the cerebrum; C. Unconditioned reflex; D. Laterality of cerebral dominance; E. Coordinated activity of Wernicke's area and Broca's area. (C)


Functions of the Nervous System-Guidance I
Functions of the Nervous System-Brief question I



Functions of the Nervous System-Guidance II

Physiological Courses for International Students of Class 2016