60Please name the sensory receptors and identify their adequate stimuli of different special sensory organs.

61. Briefly describe the functions of the outer, middle and inner portions of the ear in hearing.

62. What is the audible spectrum of human hearing?

63. What is the neural pathway of hearing?

64. How does the ear perform impedance matching by the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain?

65. What is the function of contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles?

66. What is the difference between air conduction versus bone conduction of sound wave?

67. What is the pathway of sound wave transduction in the inner ear?

68. What is the functional difference between auditory nerve and vestibular nerve?

69. Briefly describe the functions of tectorial membrane, hair cells and basilar membrane in Organ of Corti during sound sensation.

70. How are sound waves in different frequencies detected by the basilar membrane?

71. How does the Cochlea determine the loudness of a sound in Traveling Wave Theory?

72. What is the difference in potassium level between endolymph in scala media and perilymph in the scala vestibule or scala tympani?

73. What happens to the hair cell membrane potential when a shearing action occurs between the tectorial membrane and the organ of Corti following the movement of basilar membrane?

74. How can hair cells in the organ of Corti convert sound into generator potential?

75. Why does the cochlear microphonic potential but not the auditory action potential change accurately with alteration in the frequency and amplitude of the sound?

76. What do you know about the features of sound processing in the CNS?

77. What is the difference between kinocilium and stereocilium?

78. What is the function of vestibular system?

79. Why do the otolith organs can sense gravity and linear acceleration?

80. How does the gating-spring model explain the receptor potential of the hair cells?

81. What is the chemical nature of olfactory receptors for odorants?

82. What is the afferent pathway of the olfactory system?

83. What is the difference of the mechanisms in which the taste buds sense salty/acid versus sweet/bitter?

84. What is the afferent pathway of the gustatory system?

85. What is the common pathway of neural reflex?

86. What is the difference between tendon reflex, stretch reflex and flexor-crossed extensor reflex in the sensors, reflex arc and effect?

87. Supraspinal regulation of motor functions occurs at what levels?

88. Are lower motor neurons necessary when motor cortex can initiate movement voluntarily?

89. What is the relationship between lower motor neurons, upper motor neurons, and basal ganglia and cerebellum in neural regulation of motor functions?

90. What is motor unit?

91. What is the difference between alpha- and gamma-motor neurons?

92. What is the function of interneurons in the CNS?

93. What is spinal shock, and how does it happen?

94. Please name the reticular facilitatory and inhibitory areas in the brain.

94. How could decerebrate rigidity happen when damage occurs at descending motor pathways at the level of the brainstem?

95. What nuclei are involved in the posture reflex?

96. What do you know about the features of cortical motor area?

97. Through what efferent pathways, the motor cortex control motor activity?

98. What is the difference in the signs and symptoms between upper and lower motor neuron lesions?

99. What brain nuclei constitute the basal ganglia?

100. What are direct and indirect corticostriatal pathways?

101. What kinds of neurotransmitters are involved in the functions of basal ganglia in motor control?

102. What is the association between Parkinson’s disease and destruction of the substantia nigra?

103. What are the motor functions of the cerebellum?

104. What are the functions of cerebrocerebellun, spinocerebellum and vestibulocerebellum?

105. What is the difference in the distribution between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves?

106. What is the general functional feature of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves?

107. What is the effect of vagal output on the activity of myocardial cells, smooth muscles and glands?

108. Use 8-10 examples to illustrate the visceral functions of the two branches of autonomic nervous system, respectively.

109. What do you know about the regulation of visceral activity through reflex?

110. What is the general organization of the two autonomic nervous systems?

111. What kinds of visceral sensory input reach the nucleus of solitary tract?

112. What is the descending sympathetic pathway?

113. Compare the features of somatic with visceral nerves from the views of adequate stimuli, effectors, types of efferent fiber, presence of peripheral neurons, nerve fibers and nature of neural control.

114. If the activity of acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, what would happen to the activity of the gastrointestinal tract?

115. What types of cholinergic receptors mediate the action of autonomic nervous system?

116. What types of adrenergic receptors mediate the function of sympathetic nervous system?

117. What is your understanding of the relationship between autonomic nervous system and the intrinsic nervous system?

118. What are the basic components of visceral reflex arc? Please illustrate with an example?

119. List three preganglionic nuclei in brainstem that innervate parasympathetic ganglia and briefly describe their functions.

120. What do you know about hypothalamic nuclei and their functions?

121. Why is the hypothalamus considered as a major control center of the limbic system?

122. What kinds of behavioral functions does the hypothalamus have?

123. How do you understand that the neural modulation of visceral activity and behaviors is an integrative process?

124. What is instinctive behavior?

125How is the feeding behavior regulated by the nervous system?

126How is drinking behavior regulated by the nervous system?

127How is sexual behavior regulated by the nervous system?

128How is emotion regulated by the nervous system?

129. What neurotransmitter systems carry the reward behaviors?

2017年12月05日

Functions of the Nervous System-Brief question I
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Physiological Courses for International Students of Class 2016
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